Why Women Are More Susceptible to Cocaine Addiction Than Men

Addiction is an incapacitating neuropsychiatric disorder wherein a person gravitates toward high levels of drug use, prioritizes drug-seeking behavior over other activities, and repeatedly vacillates between abstinence and relapse. The problem of addiction can occur in anybody irrespective of factors like age, social status, religion, type of personality, etc.

However, gender differences may play a crucial role in fastening the development of addiction. Compared to men, women have been found to be more vulnerable to drug addiction, especially cocaine. Since cocaine has the potential to trigger extra energy and alertness, it is being widely used by women to complete work by staying awake. Moreover, it has become an easy way to escape from emotional or mental health problems.

In the past, most clinical research on addiction or other areas of interest were male-dominated. Clinicians and scientists of yesteryears avoided including female subjects in studies because of the belief that their hormonal cycle was too much of a variable to attain conclusive results. Due to the above reason, the inclusion of women participants becomes a major barrier to understand the way the development of addiction subtly differs due to biological changes.

The inclusion of women in clinical trials is somewhat a new development. However, it has led to the development of better medicine, improved intervention approaches, and enhanced understanding of how an addiction progresses among men and women. This progressive shift in the approach of studies has led to a better understanding of the nuances of addiction.

One of such studies discussed below highlights the key reasons behind the rise in the popularity of cocaine among women. This sex-specific study on cocaine reward published in the journal Nature Communications explains the facts and figures related to this problem in detail.

Hormonal activities affect addiction in women

The study, conducted by the researchers from Mount Sinai Hospital and led by Dr. Erin Calipari, found that hormonal fluctuations explain the development of an addiction among women who use cocaine at the rates faster than men. The study also highlights that women are likely to start using cocaine at an earlier age and in greater amounts than men. Lastly, the study shows that women are more likely to have difficulty in avoiding cocaine than men.

The researchers used mice to explain the difference in the expression of cocaine use between men and women. Since both dopamine pathways and drug responses in mice are similar to that of humans, these mice were analyzed throughout the different stages of their main reproductive cycles.

The researchers found that menstrual cycles in mice can significantly affect the impact of cocaine. When the hormone levels of female mice are low, they tend to mimic male mice. However, if the estrogen levels are high in female mice, they witness a marked increase in the rewarding effects of cocaine.

The female mice on cocaine not only demonstrated that dopamine activities are affected but also displayed that these activities lingered in the female brains than male. The study also found that environment …

Baby Shower Gift For Dads

Gift for Dads:
The mom is always on the limelight when she is pregnant. Poor Dad! He is also excited as mom. It is his proudest moment too. After all it is his son or daughter too. It would be nice to invite dad to the shower. If it is a ladies only shower, you could still get the proud Dad-to-be a gift. In this piece you will see some of the suggestions which could go as gifts for Dad.

It is the thought that counts:
The gift for dads need not be unnecessarily expensive. There are plenty of ideas for the perfect gift for dad to choose from. They would range from the inexpensive to the very expensive. It all depends on your budget and what you are willing to spend. Remember, it is the thought that counts, not so much the gift.

If you remember the gift that you got in the past, even the small inexpensive ones which came as a surprise were the memorable ones. They made you glad by reminding you that your friend or relative thought of you. Some of them you probably still have, like a figurine, or something more elaborate.

So the future Dad would feel just as good about getting the perfect gift for dads, especially if he was not expecting to get a gift. So a surprise gift would have added to his pleasure even more.

An expensive gift for dad would be nice too, but most people can not afford to buy them. You could however all get together and get the father-to-be one gift. Let him know it came from all of you. That way nobody would feel left out of the giving. You do not all have to give the same amount, just what you can afford.

A gift for Dad should be something which he likes or has a soft spot for. Some of the less expensive gifts could be cologne, after shave, a money clip, or gourmet coffee. If he writes letters, you could get him some manly looking stationary supplies. Or maybe something for his desk: A letter opener, paper weight, pen and pencil holder, drawer organizer, postage stamps – for the ugh! bills he has to send. Thank you notes would be the perfect gift for dads, he would not have to get them himself to thank the guests for the gifts.

Some gifts for the bedroom would be a small reading lamp, table for eating in bed, candy if he has a sweet tooth. Or maybe a bath robe, slippers, or a bath towel wrap.

If he likes jewelry, then you gift him jewelry as well. Remember, not all men like to wear jewelry. You might want to ask the mother-to-be about Dad's tastes. An ID bracelet, necklace, earring if he wears them, or a nice ring.

If Dad works out at the YMCA or local gym, or just likes to jog he might appreciate a jogging suit, sports clothing, sport accessories, …

Groom Wedding Speech – How to Deliver This Most Important Speech

Are you excited about tying the knot with the most special woman in your life? In addition to enjoying the overwhelmingly joyous occasion, grooms should prepare themselves for another important aspect of the day – the groom wedding speech. People, who have not tried preparing their own speech, may say that it does not require any preparation and that it can be spontaneous and if the groom loves his presence enough then words will just fall into place. This perception is totally misplaced.

Standing in front of a big gathering of family and guests is not that easy unless you are used to this kind of crowd. Sharing some of your private thoughts is often uncomfortable to do, especially as it is broadcast to everyone at the reception.

If you want to present a really good groom wedding speech, then prepare yourself properly. Sprinkled through this article are points on how to deliver well. The key ingredient to remember is sincerity and to talk from the heart as this is the most important factor in delivering such a speech.

  1. Plan your speech well before the reception takes place. The actual ceremony can be very overwhelming and may cause you to struggle to find the right words at the time.
  2. Your speech must be meaty and solid. It should include a number of perceptive, humourous and yet valuable points. It is important that your speech appear unique and be pertinent to both your new wife and your guests. Do not rush your thoughts. Take some time to think of things that you want to talk about. Work with different possibilities until you come up with the best content. Remember to deliver a sweet, loving, and caring speech; After all it is dedicated to your wife.
  3. Commence your speech by expressing appreciation to all the people present at your wedding celebration. Tell a joke. Try to deliver some humor to energize your guests. You can share funny things about the reception and the preparation for the wedding. Be careful not to exaggerate, in order to avoid offending other parties. However, if you are not the type who can successfully retell funny jokes, or put a humorous slant on day to day happenings, then do not force yourself. Jokes are not essential in every groom wedding speech.
  4. Talk to your wife. Tell her promising words and let her know how you feel and how you are looking forward to your future together. Do not be reticent about showing your softer side. Let your wife know how happy you are that she came into your life. Thank her for her love and patience and because she stayed no matter what. She may know this from your time together, but she will feel it most on hearing it from you. You can also include some inspiring stories from which you can confirm that you are confident in facing a future full of love and contentment.
  5. Finally, end the speech by thanking again your bride. Even

Shopping Tips: How to Make The Right Choices

Spending a lot on clothes or wearing designer labels does not guarantee that you will look chic; nor does having a large wardrobe guarantee it either. How good you look depends largely on what you choose to wear and how well it suits you. It may be the latest fad and look great on the department store model but not do anything for you. This is why it is important to know your body shape, the styles that accentuate it and how to create a fabulous look without spending a fortune.

1. Start your clothes shopping like you would shop for groceries – with a list. Take inventory of what you have in your closet and what new items will expand your wardrobe. Whatever you buy should match at least 3 other wardrobe pieces.

2. To get more for less, buy timeless basics and stay away from fads. For example, a skirt with layers of frills may be in style this season but be totally wrong for any season after. It will end up sitting in your closet and be on your "bad purchase" list.

3. If you are starting a working wardrobe and want to get a jump-start, try making black a basic color. It will be easy to coordinate with other items and always looks great.

4. Try on everything before you buy and make sure it feels comfortable. If it rides up, itches, is too tight or can only be worn on special occasions then it is not a good purchase.

5. Do not buy items that are 50 – 70% off if it is not something that you would want to buy at regular price. It is not a great deal if it does not fit with your existing wardrobe. It will end up at the back of your closet.

6. Shop for what you need keeping quality in mind. Before buying take into consideration washing instructions. If you have to spend a lot on dry cleaning then your bargain is no longer a bargain. If you are afraid to wash it maybe it's best left in the store and if it has cheap workmanship do not buy it. Look for high quality at a lower price at the end of the season.

7. To create a stunning image consideration must be paid to groom such as hair, skin, teeth and makeup. The best outfit in the world will look horrible if the woman does not have good grooming habits.

© Copyright Sheila Dicks 2005 …

'Paterson' or The Non-Aligned Citizen – A Review

Paterson is a bus driver. He wakes up at 6 am every morning without an alarm. He drives a bus on the same old route to return home to his partner in the evenings. Paterson is seemingly conservative and simple in taste and he never deviates from his daily routine.

Neverheless, Paterson is also a poet.

Festival de Cannes entry Paterson (2016), led by Adam Driver and Golshifteh Farahani and directed by Jim Jarmusch, presents banality of life celebrated through its little daily accomplishments. It is an exercise in joie de vivre, as well as portrait of the man uninvolved in politics. Paterson does not own a smartphone. Or a laptop. Or a tablet. He does not watch TV to catch up with politics. Every night, with clockwork precision, he takes Marvin, his English Bulldog, for a walk through town. He unmistakably stops by The Bar. This is where he is most connected with the world: The Bar and his bus, where people discuss random topics such as anarchism or their latest romantic quests.

Paterson represents the non-aligned citizen, the individual who may vote because his civil duty dictates it. He does not follow politics but has an instinctive drive to bring his contribution to the world. Small town debate and gossip do not interest Paterson. Rather, he takes pleasure in more abstract activity, such as writing poetry. In his secret notebook, he is a god who creates an alternative universe where politics does not exist. Where there is place only for beauty and nature. He is fascinated with and observes the city while driving around, then he translates it, as well as his family life, into beautiful poems which never find an audience. Paterson's partner, Laura, urges him to copy his writing and constantly encourages their publication, but Paterson does not write for success. He does not seek to share his thoughts with the rest of the world, which may be a further reason why he's not involved with the political debate.

Antagonizing him is Laura, his partner. She is immersed in everything new and shiny, loves having hobbies and cultivates new ones. She is engaged with technology and avidly seeks to be on top of everything new. She is the portrait of the political spectator who is constantly involved in the debate. She will vote, and she will also let everyone else know what she believes is right. She will use online tutorials to learn how to play an instrument. She would also believe in authenticity and would craft, paint and build. Her life is black and white, and so is everything in it. Including her cupcakes.

The movie is a cinematic delight in that it urges the viewer to cherish trivial things and constantly search and find happiness. It shows how one can disconnect from the material and technological and still be happy. It encourages self-reflection, authenticity and doing good without seeking validation. It also challenges our constant involvement in politics and our drive to criticize. In …

6 Stylish and Trendy Outfit Ideas for Summer

Here are 6 fabulous summer outfit ideas for you.

1. Feel flowy and comfy

Women who are fond of wearing loose dresses will absolutely enjoy doing this. Flowy cotton dresses are perfect for summer because light to wear, is important because you have to stay cool and classy even in the warmth of summer. Make sure to choose dresses are light in color such as white and yellow to somehow alleviate the heat of the sun. If you're thinking of shoes, try sneakers to keep that comfy feeling.

2. Classic tank

A very classic in summer involves your tank top and boyfriend pants. This pair never gets out of style especially during the sunny days because it flatters your body shape at the same time sprinkles some glam on your get-up. Create this along with wearing a sun hat and your most-loved sunglasses.

3. The Crop Top Fever

Crop tops have been rounds in countless fashion magazines and shows. Undoubtedly, it is the latest in the world of midriffs and hanging shirts. You can be very flexible with crop tops because you can wear it with pants, shorts, and even skirts. Knowing this summer must be an easy challenge if you have crop tops of various colors in your wardrobe.

4. Rockin 'a bikini

One of the best come from wearing bikinis. Summer is contextually similar to frolicking by the beach and you must agree that bikinis are by far the best thing you can be seen in. However, if you want to spice up that two-piece clothing, you can accentuate your look by wearing accessories like colored pearls and some pua shell necklace. This will surely hook you up with that great summer vibe.

5. Mad about prints

You can think of countless prints and still believe all will look fab on summer clothing. Your under the sun can consist of floral, boho, and geometric prints that can alt pasten your look to a summer surprise. Printed clothing is a good choice if you are deciding on this particular summer.

6. White polos

White clothing has always been a part of whenever summer comes in. A top choice to wear for the sunny weather is a white polo. You can don this look especially when you want to cover up a bikini temporarily for a quick bite out o the beach. Wear this with denim shorts and decorated sandals and you'll make heads turn with this fun. …

Remember These When Planning For the Wedding Day

Every couple will certainly know that wedding planning can be a difficult task. You have spent a lot of time on the planning work. You have created the most excellent invitation cards. You have also chosen the best venue, caterer and musician. Now, it is time to plan for the actual wedding day!

As a matter of fact, there can be a lot of unexpected things to happen on your wedding day. So, you have to be prepared that there will be plenty of unexpected events. Yet, you should try to understand that it is a universal truth and you should be relaxed. You should try to enjoy the day instead of being nervous.

The night before your wedding day, you should make sure that you will have a good sleep. You will need to have enough energy for your wedding day. Beside, do not try to eat too much. You do not want to get sick on the most important day in your life.

Be sure to have breakfast on the wedding day. This is because you may not have the chance to have lunch. You will be very busy during the day! Again, remember to be relaxed. This is the best way for you to become the most beautiful bride in the world.

If you are not going to hire a wedding planner, you will need to ask your friends or family members to help to organized on your big day. For example, you will need to ask your friends or family members to help to contact different vendors or parties so that you can make sure that they will not be late.

Remember, do not attempt to be the one who will be in charge of the logistics of your big day. This is because you should be the one who enjoy the day. And you may not be able to make the correct decisions on that day. It is better to have someone to help you to do so! …

Wedding Traditions – Let Them Eat Cake

As is the bride the center of attention at the wedding ceremony, so is the wedding cake at the reception. But the wedding cake is the probably the least understood of the wedding symbols.
In ancient Rome, wedding cake pieces crumbled over the newlyweds ensured prosperity. While it is not popular today to crumble cake over any of the wedding guests, least of all the wedding party, the wedding cake is still considered today as a sign of good luck. A couple who cuts their cake together with intertwined hands will be blessed with children. Traditional Irish folklore would have the couple save the top layer of a whiskey soaked, dense, dark wedding fruit cake saved; to be served at the christening of the couple's first child. And it is the Chinese who are said to have started the custom of giving cake to guests as a sign of good luck, even if guests were not able to attend the wedding. Rarely practiced today is the late 17th century tradition of unmarried women sleeping with a piece of wedding cake under their pillow so that they dream of their future husband. Due because of the tropical climate, in some Pacific Islands the actual eating of the wedding cake is incorporated into the wedding ceremony.

The wedding cake is traditionally iced with white icing, a link to the symbol of purity (from Victorian times) to the link between the bride and the wedding cake (originally called the bride's cake). This link between the bride and the cake is strengthened today as many brides coordinate the color of the wedding cake icing to that of their bridal gown color – even if their gown is not white! Prior to Victorian times the reason behind the cake icing being white was as an outward sign of affluence. The very whitest of icings required the most refined sugar available, and since only the affluent could afford the very expensive highly refined sugar for the wedding cake icing, the whiter the cake, the more affluent the families appeared.

Whether the wedding cake is a very traditional one-tier plainly frosted fruit cake, or an elaborate multi-tiered ornately decorated cake, wedding guests enjoy a piece at the wedding reception [http://www.pewterexpressions.com/site/1602051/ page / 760104] – now now symbolizing the joining of all guests as a community to support the newly married couple. Whatever the tradition associated with the wedding cake- let them eat cake! …

Jewelry Shopping

My cousin who I hardly see maybe about once a year wants jewelery from me for her sixteenth birthday. We've got a quirky little relationship. Unlike my sister, who I've been at war with since she was born, the dynamic with my younger cousin is more affable. We get on. I'd never get my sister jewelry – far too weird. But somehow for a cousin like her, it feels both big brotherly and friendly.

So I'm working through mental pictures to try and remember what kind of jewelry she wears, as I figure there could be some sort of theme, color, and material concurrent to her tastes. Or are they just random? Would anything do? Buying jewelry I am discovering taking takes reasonable time and mental effort, not to mention empathy (or is it sympathy?) And some other types of emotional engagement that I do not know the words for.

Ok, so a diamond ring might be a bit too much, but then again I do not want to just get some plain accessories. A bracelet perhaps? A sparkly bracelet? I'm trying to think how many different types of jewelry there actually are out there. I guess it's limited by the imagination. There's so many innovations in design and beauty wear it's hard to keep track unless you read the fashion supplements in Sunday newspapers.

Though even fashion is hardly a guide. I guess looking at what jewelry to buy online may help. Some of the jewelry shopping web sites are overwhelming with regard to the range of jewelry to buy on the Internet.

It's hard to tell what's retro and what's just new anyway. What's in one week can be out the next and then the week after it's back in again but on a white gold chain or something.

I try a new tack on choosing what jewelry to buy online for my cousin. I guess she'd be happy whatever I bought as she's the type who appreciates the 'thought that counts.' But she'll probably also want something nice; some kind of awkward politeness is not the response that would encourage me to buy jewelry online for friends or family again.

What's her favorite color? I'm not sure if she has a favorite color – at least one that does not change week to week. Maybe a multi-colored necklace? Then again, I quite fancy that she'd love a brooch. Brooches look great. I think. Yes she'd quite like a brooch.

It's so easy to look at brooches online, or bracelets, necklaces, rings. Prices, sizes and types all in convenient little lists that you can scroll through. Given that in jewelry shop most of the stuff is sealed behind reinforced security glass it is not much different to looking at jewelry on a web page.

I see a nice looking brooch online. Studded with green and blue gems. It's not too loud but looks both quirky and timeless, in a modest kind of way. It's subtle. Not quite like …